Here is something useful for those of you who still modestly err on the side of being relative novices. Nothing wrong with that, of course, because in a brief matter of time, you will have acquired a good background knowledge to rf power dividers. Power dividers are also commonly referred to as power splitters. And when they are being used in reverse, they will be called power combiners. Directional couplers are deemed to be passive devices.
Such devices are mostly utilized in the field of radio technologies. These devices will couple a set amount of electromagnetic power within a transmission line to a port. This enables a signal to be utilize within another circuit. A primary feature of directional couplers is that they will only be coupling power in one direction. Power entering an output port will be coupled to an isolated port. But it will not be coupled to a coupled port.
The directional coupler is built to split power in equal proportions between two ports. This particular coupler is also referred to as a hybrid coupler. Such couplers are often constructed from two coupled transmission lines. These lines need to be located close enough together in order for energy to pass effectively through one couple to the next. This is a technique often used at microwave frequencies.
Such frequencies occur when transmission lines are used to install a number of circuit elements. Lumped component devices will occur at lower frequencies. The production of audio frequencies occurring in telephony is one such example. At microwave frequencies waveguide designs are being used. Waveguide couplers correspond to conducting transmission line designs. Note in closing that all directional couplers and power dividers will always have numerous applications.
It is hoped that this brief intro was useful.